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... History of Ganja

Ganja     Agriculture, gardening and cattle breeding have received wide development simultaneously with craft in Ganja. An unknown author in his work "Adjaib ad-dunya" wrote, that this richly occupied large metropolitan city of Arran was surrounded with powerfully strengthened fortress walls. Whole Ganja was in greens. There were a large variety of fruits in here. The atlas, fabrics, cotton, silk and other goods were taken out to other cities. The population was courageous and shoot bows well enough.
Nizami Ganjavi       In the specified period Ganja played the important role in cultural development of Azerbaijan. Many scientists and poets, whose products have won the worldwide recognition, were born and lived in this city.
Mahsati Ganjavi    It is necessary to note creativity of Mahsati Ganjavi . She was very much-gifted poetess of the time, having respect and authority of the people.
      The ingenious Azerbaijan poet Nizami Ganjavi, who has the worldwide recognition, lived and created in Ganja in this period. His "Khamsa" is one of rare pearls of a treasury of the world literature. J.E. Bertels wrote:" Nizami has immortally won the recognition of mankind by divine magic of his spirit ".
Khamsa handwriting       In the beginning of ĠIII century Azerbaijan was exposed to invasions of the Mongols. They were rendered with strong resistance everywhere. During the first invasion in Azerbaijan (1220) they could not grasp Ganja, which was well strengthened and resisted to the enemy. In 1225 Azerbaijan has undergone to invasion of Dzhalaladdin, who has grasped Azerbaijan cities one after another, including Ganja. And it fixed the end to the state of Atabeks.
      Dzhalaladdin's governors behaved outrageously, demanded large taxes. In 1231 all this became an occasion of revolt of the Ganja population against foreign invaders. The rebels, having destroyed the palace of the governor of city, killed the servants and have compelled the rich men to pay taxes for deprived within several months. This revolt was suppressed. The head of the rebels a handicraftsman Bender and 30 active participants were executed. In 1231 the Mongols, having surrounded the city, met strong resistance of the local population. Despite of it, the invaders occupied, plundered the city and have subjected the population to severe punishment. The city was not restored for a long time. The sanction for its restoration was received only in 1235.
To the Bazar ...       Since the middle of ĠIII century Azerbaijan have been entered into structure of the state of Khulaguids, which was ruled by Khulagu khan (1256-1265).
      In the 80-ties Azerbaijan was subjected to an attack of Amir Teymur. The country has turned to arena of struggle between Teymur and Tokhtamish. During Teymur's invasions to Georgia Ganja played a role of military station. Teymur's campaign on Azerbaijan has brought the large disasters.
      In the beginning of XVI century a new state of Sefevids has appeared. Ganja was one of beklarbekliks (province), included in structure of the state founded by Shakh Ismail Khatai. With the assignment of the sultan Shakhverdi as the first beklarbek (ruler) of Ganja, a long domination of the representatives of a new dynasty of Ziad ogly from the tribe of Kadjars began in Ganja and Karabakh. It's this period when Imamzade was built.
Ruins of a corner of a tower       Ganja, which again occupied one of conducting places in trade of Transcaucasia, supported close contacts to Russia, countries of Near East and Europe. According to one of the historical sources, there were more than 50 thousand facilities (225 000 population) in Ganja.
      Temporary reduction of military actions and expansion of trade communications have influenced revival and development of economic life of Ganja and other cities. The Turkish traveller Evliya Chelebi marked, that in this period there were 6000 houses in Ganja and all of them had gardens. Especially he emphasised the development of silk industry.
      The Osmans were disturbed very much with the gain of Caspian areas by Russia. In 1723 they have taken Ganja in siege, however failed to occupy the city.
Javadhan       It has disturbed the government of Iran. Nadir shah, who stood in the chapter of the Iranian army, has put before himself the purpose exile Russians and Turks from Azerbaijan and to transform it in an occupied zone. According to the conditions of a contract signed between Russia and Iran near Ganja in March 1735, the Russian government has removed its armies from Caspian provinces.
      Nadir shah's policy in Azerbaijan has subjected the population to complete ruin, became the reason of its poverty. The murder of the shah in 1747 has strengthened aspiration to even more independence, and was finished by occurrence of separate feudal governments - khanlygs.
      One of the khanlygs, arisen in the middle of Ġ\/III century was Ganja khanlygy. A representative of the dynasty of Ziadogly, which have ruled in Ganja for a long period of time, Shakhverdi khan (1740-1756) became the khan of Ganja. Ganja became the centre of the khanlyg.
      In the 80-ties years of Ġ\/III century during the government of Dzhavad khan (1785-1804), Ganja khanlygy considerably has become stronger. It carried out independent external policy. The khanlyg had it's own monetary courtyard in Ganja.
     In this period imperial Russia, protecting interests of aristocracy, nobility, landowners and merchants, in its turn, tried to grasp new grounds, to expand the markets of selling. In this respect imperial Russia gave the large importance to Azerbaijan because of its strategic and economic situation.
Cavadkhan's tomb       Taking into account a good site of the Ganja khanlygy, the territory could be used as stronghold of army for association other khanlygs of Azerbaijan. The command of Russian army considered Ganja " as a key to northern provinces of Iran ". General wrote, that Ganja fortress because of a favorable geographical situation occupied the important place in Azerbaijan and consequently a paramount task of Russia was to capture this fortress.
Elizavetpol coat of arms       Tsitsianov several times addressed to Dzhavad khan to surrender voluntary and each time received refusal. In November 20, 1803 he directed through Tiflis with his army towards Ganja, in December he come nearer to the fortress. Having understood, that it would be difficult to possess it, after certain preparations, on January 3, 1804 at 5 o'clock in the morning he gave the order to attack the fortress. After fierce fights they have grasped the city. Dzhavad khan was killed. Ganja was renamed in Elizavetpol in honour of Alexander's wife Elizaveta.
Cavad khan paper office       In 1805 the imperial government officially has entered commandant method of ruling. From now on all military, property and financial authority was concentrated in hands of a commandant. In 1806 a district court was created in Ganja.
     In 1824 a police department was created, with the purpose of strengthening of the control above the population of city, in Ganja. This department and its methods of government dissatisfied the population. The commandant system was liquidated in 1840. Ganja was entered in the structure of Georgian-Imereti province as a district and there was founded a post of the head of district. Elizavetpol province was founded in 1868. Ganja became the capital of Elizavetpol province.
Mirza Shafi Vazekh       The arrangement of Ganja on a crossroads of caravan ways to Baku - Tiflis created conditions for communications with shopping centres of Transcaucasia and large centres of East.
      In first half of the ĠIĠ century a revival in cultural life of Ganja was observed. During centuries in spiritual schools and madrasa pupils were acquainted with classical east literature. However the spiritual schools, madrasa had no clear educational programs. Actually at this period Mirza Shafi Vazeh - famous poetry and teacher, author of first school-book study in Ganja. In madrasa, near the Juma mosque , 100 pupils were trained. In 1833 district schools were open in Ganja. In 1833 38 pupils were trained here, at the end of 50-ties the number rose up to 100. In the middle of ĠIĠ century special schools began to work in Ganja and in 1860 198 men were trained there. Only 18 schoolgirls received education at sole female school. In the middle of 60-ties 981 men were educated in Ganja schools.

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